- Mechanical barrier.
- Regulation of body temperature.
- Regulation of salt in the body by means of sweat.
- Skin acts as a sign of beauty in case of glowing shiny skin.
- Skin also plays an important role in social communication.
- Skin is made up of two layers namely outer layer (epidermis) and inner layer (dermis), two appendages namely hairs and nails, two glands namely sebaceous and sweat glands (eccrine and apocrine).
- Damage to the epidermis does not leave any scar whereas damage to the dermis and layers below will ultimately result in scar formation.
Structure of skin
- Dry skin is that which looks dry and the dryness gets improved by the application of emollients.
- Dry skin actually gives dull appearance along with dry and rough feel to touch. Certain conditions may occur resulting in visible scaling associated with irritation, redness and itching.
- Working fingers become dry and fissured.
- Thus dry skin requires more attention and care.
- Oily skin is shiny to look at.
- This greasy appearance is mainly due to excessive secretion of sebum.
- In certain cases it gives a pulpy coating.
- Always pores and acne accompany the oily skin.
Normal skin is perfect ideal skin with sufficient sebum necessary to keep the skin soft and supple so that the skin does not become dry or oily in nature.
Daily skin care basically depends upon the surrounding atmosphere especially the climatic conditions, nature of the person’s work or duty and also the skin type.
- Skin always requires a well balanced diet which includes a well balanced curd, green vegetable, eggs etc.,
- Over the years it is seen that many people are misconcepted to the fact that consumption of fish along with milk, white food, spicy and fried food results in pimples, but actually it is NOT TRUE.
- Regular walking.
- All these exercises actually make the skin shiny and healthy. In addition to all these factors, there must be a positive mind, so that the skin always has a young texture.
Glycerin based soaps, liquid paraffin, cleansing milk and cold creams must be used to make the dry skin look soft and supple by maintaining water in the epidermis.
Non-glycerin soap, abrasive cleaners must be used 2 to 3 times a day. Talc powder and dusting would be helpful.
- Toning is an important technique to be followed after cleansing.
- Toners are the components associated with toning and there are various concentration of alcohol to suite various types of skin.
- Dry skin does not require the toning technique but oily skin needs more of alcohol content to perform toning mechanism.
- In India, it is very much essential to use moisturizers for skin care. This is because heat, sunrays, pollution etc., adversely cause damage to the skin and make it dry.
- Usually moisturizers must be applied at night and sun screen during day time so as to protect the skin.
- Moisturizers help in maintaining the skin soft and supple.
- Various moisturizing agents available in market are cold creams, night creams, lotions and other medicated moisturizing agents.
- For normal ideal skin, oil in water moisturizers must be used.
- For dry skin, more of water in oil moisturizers must be used along with emollients.
- In oily skin, emollients must be avoided, only moisturizers must be applied.
In various tropical South Asian countries, talc powder is used as dusting agent. Deodorants are also used, but in certain conditions they cause allergy.
- In case of people having long hair, the dust gets accumulated in the scalp and the hair and this dust gets held on by a greasy sebum and results in the formation of greasy hair, leading to itching and falling of hair.
- Combing wet hair excessively and colouring leads to hair loss.
HANDS & FEET:
- Hands and Feet are always exposed to irritants which are normally chemical or physical agents.
- These irritants over a period of time causes removal of lipid layer in the skin leading to dry, red, lusterless dry hands.
- Usage of closed shoes throughout the day causes dermatitis, which is a condition of thickening and ultimate fissuring.
- Oil massage of feet and hands before bathing is very much essential in keeping the skin look good.
- To keep feet fissure free, it is advisable to place the feet in Luke warm water at night and soak it and then rub it with steel wool or pumice stone and then apply moisturizers and massage it to keep feet fissure free.
- Nails require additional attention as they are mainly meant for protection.
- Apply moisturizers or water lotions in nails after placing it in Luke warm water for 5-10 minutes.
- Soft brush must be used to remove dirt under nails.
- Nails must be cut with scissors and never by teeth.
- Nail infection may occur if cuticle gets damaged.
Trim your nails regularly