Surgery is the treatment most often used in ovarian cancer. Surgery depends on the stage and the situation of women and her wishes (women wishing pregnancy, menopausal woman …). Chemotherapy is often used in combination with surgery.
Ovarian Cancer: Surgery in early stage
When the surgeon discovered that the tumor is apparently localized only at one or both ovaries, it is an early cancer. The surgery at this stage depends on the situation of women. Postmenopausal women not wanting pregnancy, the surgeon removes both ovaries and uterus after considering all the organs of the abdominal cavity. Examinations are routinely conducted to ensure that it is indeed a form of cancer limited to the ovaries.
In a woman desiring pregnancy, two situations may arise. When a tumor is found only on one ovary and if the examination reveals the presence of cancerous cells then that particular ovary is removed and may keep the other ovary. Surgeon then makes a careful exploration of the entire peritoneal cavity and lymph and levies. When one or more tumors on both the ovaries are detected, it is necessary to remove both ovaries. The surgeon can preserve the uterus after examination during the operation and this also allows pregnancy by oocyte donation.
Ovarian cancer: Surgery for advanced
The surgery for ovarian cancer in advanced stages – cancer cells in the abdominal cavity or in the lymph – is different from surgery for ovarian cancer at an early stage. In this case, the surgeon removes both ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus. At the same time the reproductive organs, the omentum and certain lymph nodes in the abdomen are also removed.
If it is found that the cancer has spread throughout the abdomen, the doctor tries to remove as much cancerous tissues as possible. This is called surgical reduction of tumor volume. In some cases, after a first round of chemotherapy, if the scan shows a regression of lesions, a second intervention is proposed, called the revaluation (or second look).
Chemotherapy – ovarian cancer
The surgery for ovarian cancer, either early or advanced, is most often followed by 6 courses of chemotherapy. Only a very few localized cancer or some borderline tumors (tumors that occur frequently in younger women) do not require chemotherapy after surgery.
Made before surgery, it can help in reducing the volume of the tumor and thus facilitate the operation. Chemotherapy has greatly increased in recent years, thanks to the advent of highly active new drugs, technology and new methods of administration.