Cholera – Causes, Symptoms and Treatments
- Cholera is caused by bacteria called Vibrio cholerae.
- This bacterium is found in various planktons and also in shallow coastal areas.
- Contaminated water, food and fish especially shellfish causes cholera in human.
- Cholera is transmitted through fecal-oral.
- The bacteria synthesize a toxic substance that causes watery diarrhoea discharge.
- Cholera is an epidemic disease spread across all parts of the world transported through ocean currents.
- Symptoms are usually felt only after 1 to 2 days of incubation
- Onset of painless watery diarrhoea.
- Progressive increase in the volume of diarrhoea.
- Further resulting in vomiting.
- Diarrhoea causes severe dehydration.
- Circulatory failure occurs rapidly.
- Collapse and ultimate death can occur within few hours.
- Tests are not necessary.
- Stool tests are taken but treatment does not depend on them.
- Rehydration must be started very soon as loose stools starts.
- Oral rehydration can be started at home itself if there is no vomiting.
- IV fluids must be started as soon as the stools become frequent.
- Circulatory failure due to shock will occur with its sequel of acute renal failure.
- Antibiotics must be provided but their use is not known.
- Delay in the treatment of dehydration may result in ultimate death.
- In cholera epidemics, many lives have been saved by means of oral rehydration.
ORAL REHYDRATION SOLUTION:
- 1 litre boiled water + 50gms soft cooked rice blended + 1 tsp salt + 1 lemon / orange juice (To make 1 litre oral rehydration solution).
- 1 glass i.e., 200ml of oral rehydration must be for each and every passage of stool.
- Very good personal hygiene.
- Vaccination is under practice but it is not of great use.
HAVE YOU HEARD?
Oral cholera vaccine is under development and various researches have been performed on this.